Chegou a hora de revisar Biologia para o Enem. Confira os assuntos que mais caíram nas provas do Enem nos últimos anos e um resumo de cada um!

Questões de Biologia que caem no Enem

Humanidade e Ambiente

Humanidade e Ambiente é o primeiro assunto que mais cai nas provas de Biologia do Enem. Meio ambiente é o conjunto de elementos abióticos como a energia solar, solo, água e ar e bióticos sendo os organismos vivos que entram na fina camada da Terra que se chama biosfera, sustentáculo e lar dos seres vivos.

A atmosfera, que protege a Terra do excesso de radiações ultravioleta permitindo a existência de vida, é uma mistura de nitrogênio, oxigênio, hidrogênio, dióxido de carbono, vapor de água, outros elementos e compostos de forma gasosa.

O solo é a cobertura mais fina de matéria, que sustenta a vida terrestre. As plantas utilizam a água, o dióxido de carbono e a luz solar para realizar a conversão das matérias primas em carboidratos, feita pela fotossíntese; a vida animal, por seu lado, possui uma dependência das plantas numa sequência de vínculos interconectados chamada de cadeia trófica. 

Citologia

Citologia é uma área da biologia que estuda a célula, que é a menor unidade estrutural que compõe os seres vivos. Esse ramo foi desenvolvido a partir da criação do microscópio, até porque a maioria das células são minúsculas e a visualização depende de um equipamento que amplie elas. 

Tipos de células

A Biologia é organizada por níveis e cada um representa uma área de estudo. Na ordem crescente dos níveis, e ocupando a segunda posição temos a citologia: 

Molécula –> Célula –> Tecido –> Órgão –> Sistema –> Organismo –> População –> Comunidade –> Ecossistema –> Biosfera 

Todos os seres vivos possuem no mínimo uma célula, que pode ser definida como uma massa de substância viva limitada por uma membrana que protege o citoplasma e o núcleo. São divididas em dois tipos: procarióticas e eucarióticas.

Fisiologia e Histologia

Histologia

Histologia é a parte da Biologia que analisa a composição e função dos tecidos. Os tecidos são um conjunto de células especializadas que possuem função importante para o ser vivo. Nas plantas, os principais tecidos são:

  • Meristema: todos os tecidos que estão presentes em uma planta tiveram sua origem no meristema. 
  • Tecidos de revestimento: são aqueles que protegem o vegetal. 
  • Tecidos de preenchimento: Esses tecidos também são chamados de parênquimas, tem como característica preencher os espaços internos da planta.
  • Tecidos de sustentação: são responsáveis pela estrutura da planta. 
  • Tecidos de condução: são responsáveis pelo transporte de seiva. Podem ser de dois tipos: xilema ou lenho.

Fisiologia

A Fisiologia Vegetal estuda como as plantas funcionam. O que é mais cobrado na prova de Biologia do Enem é a parte da transpiração. Porém, é válido lembrar da respiração, nutrição, fotossíntese e outros que são importantes processos fisiológicos dos vegetais.

A transpiração é um processo importante fisiológico dos vegetais, visto que ele está totalmente ligado ao transporte de seiva bruta feita pelo xilema.

É um processo que acontece principalmente nos estômatos, embora ele também possa ocorrer pela da cutícula. A transpiração estomática ocorre quando acontece a abertura dos estômatos. Isso permite que haja trocas gasosas com o lado externo, junto com os gases ocorre também a perda de água pelo processo de transpiração.

Fundamentos da Ecologia

A Ecologia é uma ciência baseada na observação. Exige rigoroso e amplo conhecimento para realizar a interpretação dos fenômenos da natureza e da interação dos mesmos com o meio ambiente. O estudo do meio ambiente pela ecologia possui um sistema hierárquico biológico, apresentado do mais geral ao mais específico pelos ecossistemas como biosfera, paisagem, ecossistema, comunidade, população e organismo.

Biotecnologia

Essa é a área de estudo e desenvolvimento de seres modificados em laboratório que possui o intuito de promover o aprimoramento das técnicas em vários setores da sociedade (indústria, saúde, meio ambiente, etc.).

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